Framework Factsheet

Overview / Balmorel Model (Balmorel)
Last updated 2021-10-28
Open Source
License ISC license
Framework Name Balmorel Model
Acronym Balmorel
Contact (e-mail)
Current contact person Hans Ravn
Institution(s) RAM-lose, DTU Danish Technical University, NMBU Norwegian University of Life Sciences, TTU Tallinn University of Technology, EA Energianalyse
Geographical Scope Regional, National, Local/community
Sectoral Scope Electricity, Heat/Cooling, Transport, Other specific sectors, Power-to-Gas
General Problem Scope Exploring, Back casting
Specific Problem Scope Energy supply, Environmental, Integrated approach, Modular build-up, Energy dispatch, Capacity expansion planning, Unit commitment, Sector-coupling
Inital purpose EU-driven liberalization of energy markets implied need for international overview, understanding, and communication by analyzing relevant issues for the energy sector for better understanding, communication and decision making
Inital purpose change -
Research questions Congestion management in the power market, Regional wind studies, Effect of including gas and hydrogen
Inital Release Date 2001-01-01
Parent Framework -
Version BB4 - Balmorel Base Version 4
Source of funding Project driven, main developers RAM-løse and DTU
Programming Framework MS Excel / VBA, GAMS
External Solver CPLEX, Gurobi, Coin-Or CBC
Input Data Format txt, GAMS data exchange format (gdx)
Auto model generator
data preprocessing
Output Data Format XLSX, db, GAMS data exchange format (gdx)
data postprocessing
plotting functionalities
The analytical approach Hybrid, Bottom-up with top-down calibration possibilities
Additional software none
interfaces Excel, Python
The mathematical approach Linear Programming
The underlying methodology Optimization
Objective function type Minimize Total System Cost, Maximize Social Welfare
Open Source
License ISC license
Code availability -
Data availability -
Data provided none
Open to developers
Support Community, Mail, Courses at DTU
Link to User Documentation {"{\"{\"{\"{\"{\"\"\"\"","\"\"\"\"}\"}\"}\"}\"}"}
Installation guide
Link to installation guide -
Link to code documentation
Skills basic Basic knowledge of GAMS, Some backgrounds in energy system modelling
Skills advanced Advanced knowledge of GAMS, Proficient background in energy system modelling
Fixed units
Renewable Technology Inclusion Hydro, Solar, Geothermal, Wind, Biomass
Storage Technology Inclusion Pumped-hydro energy storage, Battery energy storage
Transport Demand -
Residential Demand Heating
Commercial Demand -
Agricultural demand
Grid model Transhipment model
Cost Inclusion Fuel prices, Investment, Fixed Operation & Maintenance, Variable Operation & Maintenance, CO2 cost
New components
Variable time step
Variable rolling
Commonly used time step Hourly, Yearly, Five-yearly, weekly
Commonly modelled time horizon medium term (>5-<15), long term (>=15)
Reference Studies/Models
Citation reference
Citation (v3.02), (latest)
Projects using the framework FutureGas, PEAKapp,Flex4RES
Model usage DTU, NMBU, TTU, EA Energy Analysis, COWI, HOFOR, Danish Energy Association, Estonian Transmission System Operator Elering, Mexican Energy Minsitery, Eastern African Power Pool (EAPP), Sino-Danish Renewable Energy Development (RED) programme


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